Two classicists, Dan Attrell and Stephen Millburn discuss ten concepts shared by most pre-Christian religions in the ancient world.
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From Wikipedia: Paganism is a broad group of religions including modern pagan religions, indigenous religions and historical polytheistic religions. It is often taken to exclude monotheism, and to express a worldview that is pantheistic, polytheistic, or animistic. In a wider sense, paganism has also been understood to include any non-Abrahamic, folk, or ethnic religion. However, not all pagans were strictly polytheist. Throughout history, many of them believed in a class of subordinate gods/daimons which included some kind of supreme deity. Once monotheistic religions such as Christianity started to become more prominent, names to encompass polytheistic worshipers started to develop; some of these include Hellene, pagan, and heathen. These names came to be used as slurs.
The term pagan is from Late Latin paganus, revived during the Renaissance. Itself deriving from classical Latin pagus which originally meant "region delimited by markers", paganus had also come to mean "of or relating to the countryside", "country dweller", "villager"; by extension, "rustic", "unlearned", "yokel", "bumpkin"; in Roman military jargon, "non-combatant", "civilian", "unskilled soldier". It is related to pangere ("to fix", "to fasten") and ultimately comes from Proto-Indo-European *pag- ("to fix").
Some Relevant Books:
- The Cults of the Roman Empire: http://amzn.to/1Q5mMSp
- The Kybalion: http://amzn.to/1SNkS6o
- The Corpus Hermeticum: http://amzn.to/1SNl4mb
- The Secret Teaching of All Ages: http://amzn.to/1TlDJ7U
- The Nag Hammadi Scriptures: http://amzn.to/1Uypxhb
- The Gnostic Gospels: http://amzn.to/1VJGiHm
- A History of Western Philosophy (Audiobook): http://amzn.to/26SIkZI
- The Archaic Revival: http://amzn.to/1TlE5eZ